Catalogue entry

print this page
Trois baigneuses
Alternate titles: Bagnanti; Baignade; Baigneuses; Etude de Baigneuses; Les baigneuses; Three Bathers
Rewald: (360) 1876–77; Venturi: (381) 1879–82; Venturi revised: 1878–79; Cooper: 1881–82 (Burlington)
Oil on canvas
20 1/2 x 21 3/8 in. (52 x 54.5 cm)
Vollard A stockbook: no. 4121, baigneuses trois femmes, celle de gauche tient une linge; feuilles verts
Vollard archives: photo no. 47, Annotated by Cézanne's son: 1877

Related works


Explore catalogue entries

decade: 1870–79 »
theme: Bather »

Exhibition History

1904b Paris: Grand Palais, Salon d'Automne, no. 28, Baigneuses, lent by Vollard for Matisse.
1910a Paris: Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paul Cézanne, no. 27, Baignade, lent by H. Matisse.
1919 Paris: Paul Rosenberg, L'art français au XIXe siècle
1922d Paris: Paul Rosenberg, Les Maîtres du siècle passé, no. 7 (dated 1880), Baigneuses, lent by H. Matisse.
1924a Paris: Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Exposition Paul Cézanne (au profit de la caisse du monument Cézanne), lent by [Matisse].
1929 Cannes: Musée de Cannes, La Provence et ses peintres au XIXe siècle, no. 8, lent by Matisse.
1942 Albi: Musée d'Albi, Deuxième Salon annuel du Musée d'Albi, no. 537.
1945b Paris: Musée Galliera, Peintures des maîtres français provenant des collections de la ville de Paris, no. 54.
1948 Venice: XXIV Biennale Internationale d'Arte, no. 41 (dated c. 1879–82), Bagnanti, lent by Petit Palais.
1953a Paris: Petit Palais, Un siècle d'art français, 1850–1950, no. 444, pl. 38.
1956 Aix-en-Provence: Pavillon de Vendôme, Exposition pour commémorer le cinquantenaire de la mort de Cézanne, no. 18, ill, lent by Petit Palais.
1956 Munich: Haus der Kunst, Paul Cézanne, no. 30, ill, lent by Petit Palais.
1956 Zürich: Kunsthaus, Paul Cézanne, no. 42.
1956–57 Cologne: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cézanne, Ausstellung zum Gedenken an sein 50. Todesjahr, no. 7, ill, lent by Petit Palais.
1969 Saint-Paul: Fondation Maeght, À la rencontre de Matisse, no. 130, ill.
1974 Tokyo and traveling: National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, Cézanne, no. 13.
1984 Madrid: Museo Español de Arte Contemporáneo, Paul Cézanne, no. 22.
1987 Jerusalem and traveling: The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Peindre dans la lumière de la Méditerranée, no. 61, ill. in color, Les baigneuses.
1989 Basel: Kunstmuseum, Paul Cézanne: Die Badenden, no. 35, pls. 110 and 222.
1995–96 Paris and traveling: Réunion des musées nationaux / musée d'Orsay, Tate Gallery and Philadelphia Museum of Art, Paris, Cézanne, no. 60, ill.
2006–07 New York and traveling: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y, Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde, no. 33, fig. 147, pp. 132, 338, Trois baigneuses.
2009 Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pa, Cézanne and Beyond, pl. 10, p. 123, Trois baigneuses.
2011–12 Paris: Musée du Luxembourg, Cézanne et Paris, no. 47, ill, p. 95, Trois baigneuses, lent by Petit Palais.
2011–12 San Francisco and traveling: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, Calif, The Steins Collect: Matisse, Picasso, and the Parisian Avant-Garde, (dated 1879–82), Three Bathers, lent by Petit Palais, shown in San Francisco only.
2012 Tokyo: National Art Center, Paris—Provence, no. 55, ill.
2016 London: National Gallery, Painters' Painting: From Freud to Van Dyck, no. 7, ill, p. 31.

Published References

Vollard 1914: Paul Cézanne, pl. 45.
Coquiot 1919: Paul Cézanne, p. 192 (opp.), ill, p. 223, Baigneuses.
Janneau 1922: "Les Grandes Expositions: Maîtres du siècle passé," p. 342.
Bell 1923: Since Cézanne, frontispiece.
Denis 1924b: "Le Dessin de Cézanne," p. 41, ill.
Faure 1926a: P. Cézanne, pl. 57, Etude de Baigneuses.
D'Ors 1930: Paul Cézanne, pl. 39.
Iavorskaia 1935a: Cézanne, pl. 38.
Venturi 1936b: Cézanne: Son Art, Son Oeuvre, 2 vols., no. 381, ill. vol. 2, Trois baigneuses.
Escholier 1937: Henri Matisse, p. 17, note 2 (reprint of Matisse's letter of Nov. 10, 1936).
Laver 1937: French Painting and the Nineteenth Century, fig. 116.
Cogniat 1939a: Cézanne, pl. 25.
Dorival 1946: Images de la peinture française contemporaine, p. 13.
Dorival 1948: Cézanne, pl. 68.
Pallucchini 1948: Gli impressionisti alla XXIV Biennale di Venezia, no. 41, Bagnanti.
Jourdain 1950: Cézanne, ill.
Barr, Jr. 1951: Matisse: His Art and His Public, p. 18, ill, and pp. 38–40.
Raynal 1954: Cézanne, p. 60, ill.
Franz 1956: "Cézanne und die Abkehr von Impressionismus," p. 54.
Golding 1959: Cubism: A History and an Analysis, 1907–1914, fig. 79A.
Uchida 1960: Cézanne, p. 31, ill.
Novotny 1961: Cézanne, pl. 13.
Feist 1962: "Harmonie Parallel zur Natur, zur Malerei Paul Cezannes," p. 21, ill.
Von Grünigen 1964: Vom Impressionismus zum Tachismus, p. 24, fig. 30.
Murphy 1968: The World of Cézanne, 1839–1906, p. 178.
Ikegami 1969: Cézanne, pl. 22.
Huyghe 1971: Impressionism, p. 114, ill.
Matisse 1972: Ecrits et propos sur l'art, pp. 47–48, 83–84, p. 134, note 103, p. 310.
Flam 1973: Matisse on Art, pp. 38, 55, 75 (English translation), 25, fig. 9.
Schapiro 1973: Paul Cézanne, p. 58, ill.
Sutton 1974: "The Paradoxes of Cézanne," ill. on cover.
Elgar 1975: Cézanne, fig. 40.
Wadley 1975: Cézanne and His Art, pl. 77.
Reff 1977b: "Cézanne's Late Bather Paintings," p. 117, fig. 4.
Embiricos 1978: "Cézanne et la répétition," p. 72, ill.
Gordon 1978: "The Expressionist Cézanne," p. 37, ill.
Venturi 1978: Cézanne, ill. p. 125.
Plazy 1981: Cézanne, p. 58.
Ponente 1981: Cézanne e le avanguardie, Colli: pl. 10.
Harris 1982: The Art of Cézanne, p. 76, ill. in color.
Ballas 1983: "Unknown Sources for Cézanne's Women Bathers," p. 189.
Le Pichon 1984: The Real World of the Impressionists: Painting and Photographs, 1848–1918, p. 233, ill.
Shiff 1984: Cézanne and the End of Impressionism, fig. 36.
Pickvance and Takumi 1986: Cézanne, p. 36, ill.
Geelhaar 1989: "The Painters Who Had the Right Eyes: On the reception of Cézanne's Bathers," p. 291, fig. 222, Trois baigneuses.
Rewald 1989: Cézanne and America: Dealers, Collectors, Artists and Critics, 1891–1921, p. 194, fig. 57.
Wadley 1989: Cézanne and His Art, p. 91, ill. in color.
Sollers 1995: Le Paradis de Cézanne, p. 72-3, ill.
Cahn 1995b: Paul Cézanne, p. 37, ill.
Garb 1996: "Visuality and Sexuality in Cézanne's Late Bathers," p. 57, fig. 15.
Machotka 1996: Cézanne: Landscape into Art, p. 49, fig. 24, Trois baigneuses, dated 1881–82.
Rewald 1996: The Paintings of Paul Cézanne, A Catalogue Raisonné, 2 vols., no. 360, ill. vol. 2, Trois baigneuses.
Smith 1996: Interpreting Cézanne, p. 70, fig. 57, Three Bathers.
Lewis 2000: Cézanne, p. 146, pl. 94.
Shiff 2000: "Mark, Motif, Materiality," p. 113, fig. 16, Trois baigneuses.
Ballas 2002: Cézanne, Baigneuses et Baigneurs. Thème et composition, p. 277, no. 12 (listed), ill. pp. 51 and 252 (detail), Trois baigneuses, dated 1879–80.
Baumann 2004: Cézanne—Aufbruch in die Moderne, p. 61, ill, Trois baigneuses.
Farber 2006: Autour de Cézanne, p. 68, ill. in color.
Rodriguez 2007: "Firenze 1910: la "Prima Mostra Italiana dell'impressionismo frances" tra Cézanne e Picasso," p. 161, ill. in color.
Shiff 2007: "Risible Cézanne," p. 128, fig. 1, Three Bathers, dated 1879–82.
Bardazzi 2007b: Cézanne in Florence: Two Collectors and the 1910 Exhibition of Impressionism, p. 161, ill, Trois baigneuses.
D'Souza 2008: Cézanne's Bathers, pl. 1, ill.
Machotka 2008: Cézanne: The Eye and the Mind, 2 vols., vol. 1, fig. 83; vol. 2, p. 76, Trois baigneuses.
Bois 2009: "Cézanne and Matisse: From Apprenticeship to Creative Misreading," p. 103, ill. and p. 123, pl. 10, pp. 121, 125 (details), Three Bathers, dated 1879–82.
Kaiser 2009: "Over 'beïnvloeding' in de beeldende kunst," fig. 1, Trois baigneuses.
Roquebert 2009a: "De Cézanne à Picasso: Chez Vollard," p. 34, fig. 4, Trois baigneuses.
Shiff 2009a: "Lucky Cézanne (Cézanne Tychique)," p. 72, ill, p. 123, pl. 10, Three Bathers, dated 1879–82.
Roquebert 2009b: "Van Cézanne naar Picasso: Ambroise Vollard," fig. 4, Trois baigneuses.
Coutagne 2011d: Cézanne abstraction faite, p. 188, fig. 129.
Rishel 2012a: "Introduction," p. 2, fig. 2, Three Bathers, dated 1879–82.
Colrat 2013: Cézanne: Joindre les mains errantes de la nature, p. 170, pl. 65.
Machotka 2014: Cézanne: Landscape into Art, p. 84, fig. 22, Trois baigneuses.
Lloyd 2015: Paul Cézanne, Drawings and Watercolors, p. 170, fig. 116, dated 1879–82.
Pola Museum of Art 2015: Cézanne: Pioneer of Modern Art, p. 118, fig. 22.
Grammont 2017: "Les Cézanne de Matisse, 1865–1881," p. 77, fig. 1.


This painting is related to [Trois baigneuses, 1876–77 (922)]. Several drawings are also connected to the work (Chappuis 466 and 466bis). Like the preceding entry, the standing figure at left recurs in a number of compositions of female bathers.

Henri Matisse first saw this canvas at Ambroise Vollard's rue Laffitte gallery in December 1899. He bought the painting in several payments at great financial sacrifice and revered it throughout his life. While teaching art at his Académie Matisse in Paris the painter would at times become emotional in front of this work. One of his students recalled: "With great modesty and deep inner pride, he showed us his painting Bathers by Cézanne. His silence before it was ore evocative and eloquent than words. A spirit of elation and aw pervaded the studio at such times." (Max Weber, "Cézanne and the Crisis of Art," in A. Barr, Matisse: His Art and Public, 1951, p. 87)

He is famously quoted as saying: "If you only knew the moral strength, the encouragement that his remarkable example gave me all my life! In moments of doubt, when I was still searching for myself, frightened sometimes by my discoveries, I thought: 'If Cézanne is right, I am right'; because I knew that Cézanne made no mistake." (H. Matisse interview with Jacques Guenne, 1925, reprinted in Flam, Matisse on Art, 1995, p. 80)



Page citation: Feilchenfeldt, Walter, Jayne Warman, and David Nash. "Trois baigneuses, 1876–77 (cat. no. 923)." The Paintings of Paul Cézanne: An Online Catalogue Raisonné. (accessed May 20, 2018).
Record last updated July 14, 2015. Please note that the information on this and all pages is periodically reviewed and subject to change.